A constitution is a document having a special legal sanctity which sets out the framework of the principle functions of the organs of the government of a state and declares the principles governing the operations of those organs. In generally accepted terms it means the rule which regulates the structure of the principle organs of the government and their relation to one another. It is the living document, whose interpretation may change as the time and circumstances change.
The Constitution of India also known as “Bhāratīya Saṃvidhāna” is the supreme law of India. It is the longest written constitution of any country on earth. It incorporates the best features of each constitution of different jurisdictions across the world. All the constitutions were suitably modifies in such a way so as to avoid any uncertainty or shortcomings that existed in them. B. R. Ambedkar, chairman of the drafting committee, is widely considered to be its chief architect and also known as the “Father of Indian Constitution”.
The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January, 1950 and became effective on 26 January 1950. The constitution replaced the ‘Government of India Act 1935’ as the country’s fundamental governing document. At the time of its adoption, the Constitution contained 395 Articles and 8 Schedules and was about 145,000 words long, making it the longest national Constitution to ever be adopted. Every Article in the Constitution was debated for 11 sessions and 165 days to frame the Constitution, over a period of 2 years and 11 months by the members of the Constituent Assembly. Each Article also contains a summary of the debates on that Article in the Constituent Assembly. The Articles are grouped into 22 different parts, which reflects how they are organized in the text of the Constitution of India, 1950.
Is can also be labeled as “Borrowed” Constitution as the Indian constitution was drawn from a number of sources, keeping in mind India’s needs and conditions. Few features of previous legislation such as the Government of India Act 1858, the Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892 and 1909, the Government of India Acts 1919 and 1935 and the Indian Independence Act 1947 were borrowed in the Indian Constitution. In the Constituent Assembly, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar stated that ‘There is nothing to be ashamed of in borrowing what suits us best”.
There are a few facts of Indian Constitution stated below:-
- The Constitution of India was originally written in Hindi and English.
- The English version has 117,369 Words.
- It Is the longest Constitution in the world.
- The Constitution wasn’t typed or printed.
- It was handwritten by Prem Behari Narain Raizada.
- It took nearly 3 years to write it down.
- Each page was decorated by artists from Shantiniketan.
- The original copies are stored in special cases.
- The Constitution declares India a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic.
- It assures its citizens Justice, Equality and Liberty, and Endeavour’s to promote fraternity.
- The Constituent Assembly Met for the first time on 9 December 1946.
- 2,000 Amendments were made to the first draft.
- The final draft was prepared 26 November 1949.
- The Constitution was signed off on 24 January 1950.
- The Constitution was legally enforced on 26 January 1950.
- The National Emblem of India was adopted on 26th January 1950.