Gandhian Movements (NCM, CDM, QIM)
Mahatma Gandhi has been known to be the great leader that led this country to freedom.
His presence in Indian History is so prominent that the whole time period in which he fought for our freedom is known as the Gandhian Era.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the leader of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Rule.
His birthday, 2nd October, is widely celebrated in not only India but all over the world.
United Nations Organisation has declared this day as International Non-Violence Day.
Taking up leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for achieving freedom from the British rule in a nonviolent way.
This Era was named after Gandhi simply because he was a major part in the long struggle for India to gain back its independence.
Gandhian Movements (NCM, CDM, QIM):
- Non Cooperation Movement (NCM)
Although short lived, the Non-Cooperation Movement was very significant in the Indian freedom struggle. Gandhi realized that there was no hope of getting fair treatment at the hands of the British and thus decided to withdraw the cooperation of the people of India by launching the Non Cooperation Movement.
- It was launched on 1st August 1920 as the reaction to the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
- Under this movement, all offices and factories were shut down.
- Indians were encouraged to withdraw from the British sponsored schools, police services, the military, and the civil service, and lawyers were asked to leave the British courts.
- Public transportation and English-manufactured goods, especially clothing, were boycotted.
- Indians returned their honors and titles given by the British government and resigned from various posts like teachers, lawyers, civil and military services.
- Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM)
It was launched on 12th March 1930 to display complete disobedience of the orders and laws of the British Government.
- Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by conducting the historic Dandi Salt March, where he broke the Salt Laws imposed by the British Government.
- With the support of seventy nine ashramites, Gandhi went on his march from his Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi that is located on the shores of the Arabian Sea.
- On 6th April 1930, Gandhi and his entourage violated the Salt Law by picking up a fistful of salt lying on the sea shore.
- They made salt on the shores of Dandi.
- The British tried to repress the movement and resorted to brutal firing and killing hundreds of people.
- Many were arrested along with Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, but the movement only got stronger.
After this, a Round Table Conferences was arranged by the British and Gandhi attended the second Round Table Conference at London, but nothing was achieved in the conference and thus the Civil Disobedience Movement was revived.
- Quit India Movement(QIM)
It was launched on 8th August 1942 as a call to the British to withdraw from India and give the country its freedom.
- The Second World War broke out in September of 1939 and without consulting the Indian leaders, India was declared a warring state on behalf of the British by the Governor General.
- Some Congress leaders were unhappy with India’s involvement in the war and called for India’s withdrawal from it.
- A delegation under Stafford Cripps was sent to negotiate with the unhappy Congress leaders, which became popular by the name of Cripps mission.
- The deal was to support Britain in the war in exchange of which the British promised freedom.
- The Indian National Congress passed a resolution on July 14, 1942, seeking complete freedom from British rule.
- In August 1942, Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch a mass civil disobedience movement and thus started the Quit India Movement.
- It was a ‘Do or Die’ call to force the British to leave India.
A huge number of people supported and participated in this movement.