Airports and Seaports
A Seaport is a location on a coast or a shore that contains one or more harbours where ships can dock. They are also used for transfer people and goods to and from land while an Airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport having facilities to store and maintain aircraft, and a control tower. Conventionally these both are not considered to be integrated as they service different supply chain, namely high value goods for air transport and bulk commodities. The integration of Seaport and Airport terminals takes place over two dimensions; substitution where either a maritime or an air transport segment is substituted for the other, and complementarity where they jointly support new forms of distribution. The usage of these both dimensions could lead to new forms of coordination between Seaports and Airports.
The Indian peninsula is one of the biggest in the world with a coastline spanning 7516.6 kilometers, and is responsible for a large portion of India’s export and import. According to the Ministry of Shipping, around 95% of India’s trading by volume and 70% by value is done through maritime transport. There are currently 12 major seaports in India, out of which 11 are operated under the guidance of government of India while a corporation runs 1 (Kamarajar Port (earlier Ennore port)) and the minor ports are taken care of by the Ministry of the respective States where they are located. Recently Port Blair which was notified as major port in 2010 was removed of its status. The total 200 major and non-major ports are present in the following States: Maharashtra (53); Gujarat (40); Tamil Nadu (15); Karnataka (10) and others (82). There are also 7 shipyards under the control of the central government of India, 2 shipyards controlled by state governments, and 19 privately owned shipyards.
These ports are crucial to sustain and improve India’s developing economy. These ports in India are essential for handling a majority of India’s trade. But apart from being trade centres, they also serve as tourist attractions as well. Compared to other modes available cost, capacity, and easiness of transportation via ports are most effective.
Facts about Seaports:-
- All major ports, except one Kamarajar Port (earlier Ennore port) are government administered.
- Kandla Port is the largest port of India by volume of cargo handled.
- Madras Port is the one of the oldest port of India and the second largest port in the country.
- Jawaharlal Nehru Port is the largest container port in India.
List of Major Seaports in India
|Sea Port Name||Location|
|Chennai Port or Madras Port||Chennai, Madras|
|Haldia (Kolkata Dock System & Haldia Dock Complex)||Kolkata|
|Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Also known as Nhava Sheva||Maharashtra, South Mumbai|
|Kamarajar Port or Ennore Port||Ennore, Chennai|
|Kandla Port||Gujarat, Gulf of Kutch|
|Kochi Port or Cochin Port||Kochi, Kerala|
|New Mangalore Port||Manglore, Karnataka|
|Mormugao Port||Panaji, Goa|
|Mumbai Port||West Mumbai, Maharashtra|
|Panaji port||Panaji Goa|
|Paradip port||Jagatsinghpur, Odisha|
|Tuticorin Port (now called V.O.Chidambaram Port)||Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu|
|Visakhapatnam port||Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh|
With luxury travel slowly becoming affordable to the middle class as well, air travel has seen a never before increase. This has promoted India’s tourism and hotel industry and has strengthened its economy. There are more than twenty airports in India that handle international flights.
Major airports in India offer both domestic and overseas flights. As the travel and tourism sector of the country is thriving at a rapid pace, the airport transportation network of the country effectively fulfils the needs of a large number of tourists and visitors who are arriving in the country from distant locations. This is making a significant contribution to the economic development of the country in a special way. The country is home to over 20 international airports and various national airports. Over 335 civilian airports in the country are there and they can be categorized into two parts namely
- Airports with concreted runways (250) and
- Airports with caliche-topped runways (96).
The Indira Gandhi International Airport of Delhi and the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport of Mumbai alone handle more than half of the air traffic in South Asia. Recently, Bhubaneshwar and Imphal airports were declared as international airports by the Union Cabinet to encourage economic development and boost international tourism.
List of Major Airports in India
|Veer Savarkar International Airport||Port Blair,Andaman and Nicobar Islands|
|Visakhapatnam Airport||Visakhapatnam,Andhra Pradesh|
|Rajiv Gandhi International Airport||Hyderabad, Telangana|
|Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport||Guwahati, Assam|
|Indira Gandhi International Airport||New Delhi, Delhi|
|Dabolim Airport (Goa International Airport)||Dabolim, Goa|
|Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport||Ahmedabad, Gujarat|
|Kempegowda International Airport||Bengaluru, Karnataka|
|Mangalore International Airport||Mangalore, Karnataka|
|Cochin International Airport||Kochi, Kerala|
|Calicut International Airport||Kozhikode, Kerala|
|Trivandrum International Airport||Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala|
|Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport||Mumbai, Maharashtra|
|Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport||Nagpur, Maharashtra|
|Tulihal Airport||Imphal, Manipur|
|Biju Patnaik International Airport||Bhubaneswar, Odisha|
|Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport||Amritsar, Punjab|
|Jaipur International Airport||Jaipur, Rajasthan|
|Chennai International Airport||Chennai, Tamil Nadu|
|Coimbatore International Airport||Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu|
|Tiruchirapalli International Airport||Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu|
|Chaudhary Charan Singh Airport||Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh|
|Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport||Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh|
|Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport||Kolkata, West Bengal|
|Gaya Airport||Gaya, Bihar|
|Surat International Airport||Surat, Gujarat|
|Vadodara International Airport||Vadodara, Gujarat|
|Sheikh ul-Alam International Airport||Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir|
|Kannur International Airport||Kannur, Kerala|
|Pune International Airport||Pune, Maharashtra|
|Birsa Munda Airport||Ranchi, Jharkhand|
|Bagdogra Airport||Siliguri, West Bengal|